Tag Archives: process

The time and place to coach


How would you coach your coachee during a performance review meeting?
I was taught to observe the PRM, take factual notes, record the interaction and participation.
With this feedback, and effect it had on me, i plan a feedback talk with the coachee after the meeting.

This approach has following advantages:

  • I have the time to overview the notes I made and compose the feedback talk (read: pick my battles).
  • There is more time to give feedback.
  • My coachee has the time to reflect on the meeting himself.
  • I can give the feedback in a personal coaching moment instead of in front of all participants.
  • I will never be in the position were I put the coachee for a block, which has advantges for both of us.

This time however, my coachee insisted that I would give feedback during the meeting and also interrupt the process when I found it was running not at it’s best.
So suddenly my mandate changed from coach to process intervener and I was about to be pushed out of my comfort zone.

The coach during the game

Immediate feedback during the game

Immediate feedback during the game

We use the analogy of the coach at a soccer game a lot, so let’s take a look at it.
The coach here doesn’t wait with giving feedback. He’s all involved during the game: coaching, intervening, supporting, …
Imagine the effect of coaching only after the facts: it would be far less effective.

But there stays use for coaching after the game too and that’s what we also see with soccer. The players and coach look at the video images of last match and see what went well and what could go better. They use this information to improve upon themselves to play a better match next time.

I guess there’s no silver bullet here too.
You can combine both types of coaching: during and after the game.

Make sure you get the mandate for coaching during the game.
The referee might kick you out.

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Work fascinates me, I can watch it for hours.


Werk fascineert me, ik kan er uren naar kijken

Werk fascineert me, ik kan er uren naar kijken

“Work fascinates me. I can watch it for hours.” During a gemba, I came across this statement at the back of a Hoegaarden beer mat which was attached to a whiteboard.

Sometimes we are so absorbed by our work that we forget to take a step back once in a while. A step back to observe the process, to observe the work delivered, to look for improvements, to adjust the strategy, …

The disadvantage of not being able to take a step back is that it’s perfectly possible to start working very efficient, doing non-effective (read: non-value contributing) work. Like they say: doing the wrong things in a very efficient way.

Toyota

The rumor is that the ability of taking a step back is one of Toyota’s criteria for acquiring people. During the job applications they leave the job applicant waiting somewhere in the production line/hall for half an hour. Afterwards they ask him what did he see during the waiting time and what could be improved.

Step back, look forward

Step back, look forward. Start, pause, stop. Evaluation. What’s in a name? It are all initiatives to taking the time (and courage) to take a step back and evaluate the current situation and progress.

The challenge is that when times get hard, it’s extra difficult to take the time for this review moment. Nobody has time for a step back moment when shit hits the fan. However, it could help that to build in review moments into your calendar and into the process.

Let’s take a look how Agile did this.

Agile and retrospectives

Agile is an iterative and incremental method used to develop software. (More about Agile in “GAP analyse: Agile projectmanagement en de PMBok aanpak voor kennisgebieden Project Integration, Scope en Time Management”)

In contrast with the familiar waterfall approach, Agile works in bursts. Short sprints of 4 to 5 weeks after which a working piece of software is delivered.

Agile has it’s step back moments build into the process in the name of retrospectives.

After each sprint, the team and customer get together to evaluate their last team effort. What went well? What could go better? It doesn’t matter which technique they use: brainstorming, root cause analysis, … The principle of taking a pause to observe the current efforts and see how the team can improve will positive effects on results, commitment and team mood.

Plan – Do – Check – Act

There’s no use for a step back moment when you’re not taking action. So design a method for assign and follow-up on actions and progress. Use the action list in your next retrospective. See if you made any progress (see also blog entry “A daily sense of measurable accomplishment”) and act upon it when it’s not working.

So, when are you planning your next step back moment?

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We read for you: (re)DISCOVERing VALUE – Leading the 3-D Enterprise to Sustainable Success


Rediscovering value - Leading the 3-D Enterprise to Sustainable Success

Rediscovering value – Leading the 3-D Enterprise to Sustainable Success

(re)DISCOVERing VALUE – Leading the 3-D Enterprise to Sustainable Success” is a book by Geary A. Rummler, Alan J. Ramias and Cherie L. Wilkins which describes the need for changing to a 3-D enterprise to gain sustainable success.

With the concept of a 3-D enterprise, the book describes the need of three-dimensional management of complex organizations on the resources, value and management dimension.

The book addresses the problem with resource management in organizations: the fact that there’s only one-dimensional management in the resource dimension.

Let me explain.

Resource management vs. end-to-end ownership

Currently in many organizations the performance is measured in budget spending of the different functional silo’s and not in value delivered to the end customer.

The result is a yearly battle for getting the most resources (money, human capital and other) for the specific silo’s in the organization. In this process, each manager does it best to acquire the best and most resources to optimize its own functional pool. Further, there are also no end-to-end value stream owners assigned with end responsibility for the process and it’s results.

The end result is that hard problems which affect the end customers are not solved because of silo politics and no end-to-end ownership.

When each silo get’s its budget to optimize, there could be continuous improvement in progress, but it could be done at the wrong places. Compare it with optimizing the chain of your bike while the rear tire is flat.

Pick up end-to-end ownership

So how could you as an organization grow out of this non-productive situation? By identifying the core value streams, laying organizational focus on them (top down) and assign resources to the places that need it.

If you have the process mapped, the RACI defined, the end-to-end owner assigned, critiques found, etc, you can optimize the process by assigning resources (yes, resources, not only money) to the areas which need it the most.

This implies that one year department X will get more of the resources, and maybe the other year department Y will get the most.

Key takeaways

Creating the value creation system:

  • Start with mapping the current state.
  • Assign end-to-end value stream owners.
  • Work top down with mapping the value stream, planning, budget rounds, performance measurements, …
  • Management involvement is important: let’s get your hands dirty.

Details of the value creation system:

  • Add possible errors, trends and corrective actions to your KPI explanation.
  • Add the reason WHY you are monitoring the KPI + what do you want to learn from it to your KPI explanation.
  • Divide budget by priority in value stream, not by bottom-up silo requests.

Working with the value creation system:

  • Avoid suboptimizing.
  • Technology changes only on specific request of the business.
  • Don’t make linear cost cuts, but look at the value stream and its priorities.
  • Cross-functional reporting per value streams and find solutions together. Overcome the “it’s not my problem” attitude.
  • Create an early detection system for problems so lagging actions are avoided.

Launching the new way of working:

  • Change will not happen overnight: this shift to value implies a culture change.
  • Use incremental changes to switch from the old system to the new. Wait with the next step until each step has proven itself.
  • If you start too many initiatives, you will lose overview and work floor engagement.

What will I do with the book?

I read the book but remain with an empty feeling. I have some key takeaways, but lack more information about bringing it to the next level. The book describes three generic processes, but remains at a high level. How would you switch from an old system which is in use for years to a new value based system?

The book uses a lot of charts and many details about the generic systems, but for me they are not adding value. There’s no use in studying a generic process like “product developed” because each step is so common, you could use it in any organization.

How would you bring a modern organization with many value creation systems of many kinds which are intertwined to the new way of working? The challenge remains and I guess it’s up to us to find our way and apply the key takeaways where possible.

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Learn Value Stream Mapping with coffee and pizza


How would you bring a concept like advanced problem solving to an audience of experienced leaders and managers from various areas, including ICT and Business?

You could ask them to bring along a process, a problem, an opportunity, …

I decided to dive into the deep part and tried it. Without big success. Nobody did their preparation and in the other case the process brought along was only familiar to part of the class.

So I had to find a generic solution:

–          Which offers insight into the area of problem solving.

–          Where every participant can relate to.

–          Which is challenging enough for experienced participants, but not too challenging for non-experienced participants.

After some experiments and with feedback from participants & peers, I found a concept which meets all demands: Value Stream Mapping… with coffee and pizza.

The principle

Coffee – As teacher you have following case:

Your family in law (6 persons) is on a visit at your place. You have a classic coffee machine (not a full automated George Cloony Nespresso machine)  and all needed materials & products to make coffee. Your coffee beans still have to be grinded.

Why coffee?

Making coffee is a simple process which is familiar to all participants, even the ones that do not drink coffee. With making coffee there’s not much to do in parallel or in a different order, so it’s a great case to map the process in a very limited time.

Even though it’s a simple process, many things still can go wrong.

There’s one disadvantage: there’s not much to improve in parallel flows, so it covers only a part of the theory.

Pizza – The groups have following case:

You are the owner of a pizza house and have to make a pizza Hawaii.

Why pizza?

Pizza is also familiar to all participants, even the ones that do not like pizza. But making pizza is more complex than making coffee. Even when every group has the same end product, they will all make it in another way, but not too different way.

This will result in discussion in the group about the order and preconditions, but the result of the different groups can also be compared. There’s some value here in trying to understand the others’ point of view.

Lesson flow

High level flow:

  1. We start with a small piece of theory.
  2. As teacher I apply the theory to the process of coffee making. (about 10min)
  3. The group gets the pizza house assignment: they have to develop the value stream of making a pizza Hawaii. (about 15min for each step)
  4. Review of the group exercise: what went good/bad? What did you learn? What will you do different next time?

We go through following rounds:

  1. Create high level value stream (SIPOC).
  2. Create detailed level value stream (VSM).
  3. Find critiques.
  4. Improve process.
  5. Find measurements to see if your improvements are working.

Materials needed

  • Brown paper
  • Permanent markers
  • Post-its in various colors
  • Tape or magnets to attach the brown papers to the wall.

Time needed

2 hours

Preparation

  • Create a few empty brown papers for each group. These brown papers have to be large enough to capture the process, but small enough to make it harder for them.
  • Divide the class up in groups of about 3 to 4 participants.
  • Notify the class that some “unexpected interruptions” may occur during the exercise.

Unexpected interruptions

During the exercises I add unexpected interruptions as an extra difficulty by:

  • Making the fire alarm go off (not the real one!).
  • Taking the dominant group member to a (supposed) meeting with the GM.
  • Letting a group member fall sick (time-out for x minutes).

These are actual all events I experienced in real life during workshops 🙂

Tips & tricks

  • If you notice there’s chaos in the group, assign a facilitator with as only task… facilitating! Every round the group will have to reassign a new facilitator.
  • After each round, review the group experience.
  • After each round, review the role and experience of the facilitator.
  • Pay attention to the level of detail of the VSMs to make sure every group has the same tempo and end result.
  • Challenge the participants. Are those all critiques? Aren’t there any other solutions possible?

What do they learn?

  • Working together in a group to solve a problem.
  • Visualizing the process.
  • Dealing with unexpected circumstances.
  • Facilitating a VSM.
  • Working with the correct level of detail.
  • Understanding different points of view.
  • Thinking about how to measure success.
  • Learning to evaluate and improve.
  • Dealing with feedback.

Why should I do this exercise?

It will help you explain a tool and way of working on a pleasant and easy way. If you make your presentation good, you’ll cover all learning areas: seeing, hearing, by viewing examples and experiencing.

I’ve received some good feedback after the workshop/course, so I would say: try it out & let me know what you learned from facilitating it!

Are you looking for another fun lean exercise? Check the “Lean Cup Factory” blog!

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Five why are you doing a RCA workshop?


5 whyWhile workshops for Root Cause Analysis are becoming more common ground, we sometimes forget why we are doing the workshop. The reason can be to get the Production up and running again, but also to improve upon something.

To identify the need for the workshop, you can use one of the techniques used there: 5 why.

Let’s say that you are going to do a RCA workshop to look at inefficiencies of test preparation and execution.

Why are you doing the RCA workshop? To improve upon testing.

Why do you want to improve upon testing? To test more & better.

Why do you want to test more and better? To get better test results.

Why do you want to get better test results? To get less incidents in Production.

Why do you want to get less Production incidents? To provide a stable environment for our customer.

You’ll see, the xth why will lead you to your internal or external customer. The last why will lead you to a request of the Voice Of the Customer or the Voice Of the Business. If not, you should ask yourself why you are doing the workshop again.

Happy workshopping!

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Responsibility (or RACI) analysis of a process flow


ResponsibilityThis blog entry will describe the steps of a workshop that will create a RACI (Responsibiliy – Accountability – Consuled – Informed) matrix for a process flow and analyze it.

The flow will first start with creating the As Is situation, before starting with developing a To Be situation and action plan. This approach will guarantee that you start from the real situation before making the ideal situation.

If you notice that participants are creating flows, roles or RACI matrices “like it’s supposed to be”, address them and remind them of the purpose of this exercise. You cannot solve the problems if you don’t know (or acknowledge) them first.

Explain what RACI stands for

Everybody knows what a responsibility matrix is, but a RACI matrix is not always known. Make sure everyone is on the same page. What does RACI stand for? How do we use it now? What is the difference between Accountable and Responsible?

Expect some discussion about the A(ccountable) and the R(esponsible). When it proves hard to get the principle across, try to use a common practice example where they can relate to.

For example, in an ICT environment, the analyst is responsible for the analysis of a project, but the lead analyst will have the accountability.

Create high level workflow

When you create a high level workflow (eg. with a SIPOC) of the process, it’s easy to start with assigning the RACI.

Use the high level flow to set focus: which parts of the process (eg. website development process) are you looking at? Is it from start to end, from idea phase to delivery or only just the steps where your team gets involved?

Create detailed level workflow

When the focus is set with the high level flow, you can create the detailed level workflow. The high level flow will probably be too high level to assign into tasks and roles. This will not make the RACI assignment and analysis easy.

Collect roles in the process

For each step assign roles (not name) and provide an empty RACI matrix. Do this step before you start with filling in RACI matrices! Otherwise after every new role you find, you will have to update all RACI matrices you filled in earlier to check the applicability of the role there and check the responsibilities again.

Everybody makes a separate proposal

A RACI discussion can take some time. My experience learns me to create a RACI proposal before the RACI matrices are discussed in group. If you host the workshop in one time, you can do this step by giving everybody 15 minutes to make a proposal.

Avoid long groups discussions with this step.

Run over proposals in group

Once everyone has his proposal ready, you can discuss the results in group. There are different possibilities here: you can compose the matrix in group or you can aggregate the results first, mark the differences in the matrix and discuss them in group.

Do a RACI analysis

If you followed the “As Is first, To Be later” approach, it will start to work now: you can use the As Is to find flaws in the system and opportunities to make responsibilities clear. Avoid ambiguous arrangement and go for group consensus.

You can find a detailed description of a RACI analysis here: “RACI is (no longer) carved in stone”.

Implement To Be RACI

When you have the To Be RACI, check which are the next steps. Can you just implement the RACI or is an action plan needed for it.

Communicate and distribute the RACI. Ask for feedback from the people in the process. What changes for them? What stays the same? Does it make sense?

Further, you can check the RACI matrices of the process with the End-to-End (E2E) process responsibles.

Follow-up

Plan a RACI review exercise every year for you key processes to check if the current RACI is still valid. But don’t wait to improve when you stumble upon problems in the mean time!

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Workshops are like concerts


ConcertWorkshops have some resemblance with rock concerts. There’s a facilitator on stage, in front of an audience and he’s delivering something (value). The facilitator’s task is to make sure the audience gets what they came for.

Just like during a concert, the performance is divided in different parts: enter concert area, intro, welcome, content (delivery), finale, outro, go home.

Most workshops (like eg. RCA, VSM, brainstorm) need a high energy level and level of participation of the participants, so you need to do something special.

Intro

The start is the most difficult part for the concert. Tickets were expensive and it was hard to get there. They maybe had to drive for hours or have been queuing for hours. The audience is waiting for long and hopes to get their expectations met. Expectations rise with the minute.

How would you address them? How can you use this energy for the purpose of your workshop?

  • Introduce yourself + explain your role
  • Why are we here? Why do we need you to be here?
  • Set expectations: when is the workshop successful?
  • Check for expectations: why are the participants here? Why did they choose to devote 2 hours or more of their lives to this workshop?
  • For long workshops, do an ice breaker exercise to get everybody warm & loose.
  • Emphasize the need group effort & team work.

Content (delivery)

Nothing more boring than a rock band playing like their in a studio or in their living room. The crowd wants to act, to react, to be spoken to, to shout, …, to sing along!
Further, during the middle part of the performance, there’s always a cool down moment. Relax, come to sense, save energy.

How would you manage this high and low energy during the workshop?

  • Be passionate & enthusiastic.
  • Involve all your participants.
  • Make time for listening.
  • When listening: focus on the contributor only.
  • Interpret reactions and check for underlying feelings and needs.
  • Challenge the input of the participants.
  • Be thankful for their contribution.

Finale

The finale is the build up before the big bang closure and wrap-up. The rock band plays their best songs, their best hits. Energy levels rise: this is what the audience paid for, this is what we came for!

The finale is also an important part for workshops: how will you commit to success?

  • Make sure there’s enough time left for the finale! There’s nothing worse than ending a workshop with only a view on the “as is” phase and no action plan, unless that was agreed up front.
  • If needed, take a short break before heading into the finale: participants will come back full of energy. But don’t forget: after a break you’ll have to do a short intro again. Compare it with picking up after an intermezzo.
  • Make sure you deliver what you marked as needed for success. If this isn’t possible, address the issue and make concrete plans for the follow-up workshop(s). Don’t postpone without a date and group committment.
  • Make sure everybody understands, agrees and commits to the actions on the action plan.

Outro

The outro goes with a big bang: the band plays a last encore, the crowd shouts in excitement and the lights go out.
What a performance! People will leave energized and talk about it for days, even longer.
This is the level of energy you want to end your workshop with: participants exited about the process, the results and the next steps.

Participants that will act as promoters of the result, participants that will act as promoters of the technique.

  • Keep energy levels high.
  • Thank your audience for their participation.
  • Explain what we accomplished today.
  • Emphasize group effort & accomplishments.
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RCA: there’s more meat to this fish


FishThe Root Cause Analysis (RCA) problem solving technique is typically used for studying a specific problem to get to its root causes and to find solutions that solves the real causes and not only the symptoms.

The RCA technique makes use of the Ishikawa or fish bone diagram and this fish bone makes it possible to use as framework for other workshops.

Positive RCA

As said before, the RCA starts from a SMART problem, but you can also use it to brainstorm solutions. Put the wanted result in the head of the fish and use the bones to capture ideas.

I often refer to this technique as the positive analysis.

Brainstorm

We can take the brainstorming one step further: the fish bone is also handy when brainstorming solutions, issues and risks. For example when creating a project charter and you want to identify all possible risks of your project.

Other categories

Why limit yourself to the default categories of process, people, organization, equipment, measurement and procedure? (I actually had to look up the default categories again)

Just use what fits the purpose. If you’re discussing an IT failure in the production environment you can apply for categories like database, front end, infrastructure, network, catalogue and so forth.

Voice Of the Customer survey

You can use the RCA framework even for a VOC survey. At the head of the fish you  put the area you want to evaluate and together with the customer you capture positive and negative remarks for each bone to evaluate.

The advantage of this technique is that you can receive feedback you would never have heard when providing a fixed list of questions. The disadvantage is that the survey (workshop) requires more energy and participation of your customer, and not all customers are willing to participate in such a workshop.

So there’s more to this fish than just getting to the root causes! Why not try it next time?

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Rational Man day Usage


Efficiency vs effectiveness

Efficiency vs effectiveness

Terms like “Rational Energy Usage” (Dutch: Rationeel Energie Verbruik) are thrown at us every week in the newsletters. They mark the era of questioning our energy usage. Why are we using so much energy and where is it going to? Are our appliances using our limited sources efficiently? Are we using our energy for the right purposes? Unavoidably we get into a effectiveness versus efficiency discussion.

But isn’t the same valid for our man day consumption? Every day a lot of budget (man days) is burned at our companies, but are they spend right?

We make a difference here between efficiency and effectiveness.

Efficiency

Efficiency is doing things the right way, the efficient way. This implies with no overhead and in it’s most optimal form.

An example:

To make your software deliveries efficient you can use fast(er) computers, a customized development system and the Agile methodology.

Improve upon your efficiency with:

  • Eliminate wastes.
  • Check if every employee has access to everything he needs.
  • Check if you using the right tools.

Effectiveness

Nothing so great as doing things so efficient as possible, except when it are the wrong things. No matter how efficient you are working, if you’re doing the wrong things it doesn’t matter.

Hence the term effectiveness: doing the right things.

An example:

If you are developing screens but your customer wants a mobile interface, you are doing the wrong things. It doesn’t matter how efficient you develop your screens, the customer doesn’t need them.

If you want to improve upon your effectiveness, dare to take a step back and ask questions:

Productivity

So what about productivity? Wikipedia uses following definition:

Productivity is a measure of efficiency of production.
Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (inputs).

Productivity is by definition linked to efficiency, but not explicit to effectiveness. So it’s possible to do the wrong things and still be very productive!

Next time when you measure productivity make sure you take this nuance into account.

Measurement comparison

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Productivity

Meeting efficiency (start/end on time, agenda followed, …)Cases of mis-communication per defined and regular period/interval

Cases of re-work due to miscommunication.

Benefits of waste elimination

Meeting effectiveness (right topics/participants/scope)Suggestion system awareness & participation

Feedbacks given after idea processing

Test after training

Discount coupons in regard to coupons spread

Return-On-Investment

Output per worker or hour of labourOutput per hour / day / week

Output per machine

Unit costs (total costs divided by total output)

A little side note with measuring effectiveness: make sure you first define what you want to measure. See that you’re measuring solutions for the root causes instead of symptoms of the problem.

Note to reader: we’ll get a big clash here between efficiency & effectiveness, leading vs lagging, and dealing with root causes 🙂

For example:

When the problem is an increased violence at the streets and as response you’re putting more blue on the streets. You could measure efficiency and effectiveness of the extra police forces, but it’s better to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions you take to solve the root causes of the violence.

Applied to the office context:

If you want to install a performance culture, don’t measure effectiveness and efficiency by measuring the number of participants and participants on time in a meeting, but pick measurements for the performance of your organization.

 Applied to the ICT context:

Software defects need to be solved as efficient and effective as possible, but let’s focus on measuring efficiency and effectiveness of the delivery of quality software.

More on this here: http://blogs.hbr.org/pallotta/2010/11/our-ineffectiveness-at-measuri.html

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The Voice Of the Customer process in practice


According to SurveyMethods.com “Voice Of the Customer” means:

The Voice Of the Customer are the needs, wants, expectations, and preferences, both spoken and unspoken, of business’s customers, whether internal or external. 

Examples of customer needs are a fast service, 24/7 support, no down time, 6 liter per 100 km gas usage, …

The customer is central to lean and the focus is set to adding value (and eliminating waste). When you’re in doubt at any point in time, just ask yourself:

Is the customer willing to pay for this?
Am I ready to go to the customer and just say: “Dear, we are spending x hours/euros at …, does that make sense to you?”.

So if you are up for the challenge: how can you start?

The VOC process

The main process flow for doing a VOC goes something like this:

1. Define your value proposition

The value proposition is the reason why you exist as an organization. Which added value does your company bring to the world? What are you adding to the masses? How do you make a difference?

An example:

When you’re running a computer shop, ask: what is your added value? What are you doing different from the other 1001 computer shops in your area? What’s your thing? Where are you good at?

2. Identify your direct and indirect customers

Who are your direct customers? And who are their customers? Don’t stop after the first question. Get to know your customer and make sure you know who is representing.

An example (continued)

When a customer arrives at your shop to buy a computer and asks for a “fast computer”. The first (direct) customer is obvious: he’s standing in front of you. Getting his needs & wishes is an easy one: just ask. But who is he also representing? Maybe his whole family is using the computer or he has an 18-year-old son who plays computer video games whole night long.

3. Collect VOC

Customer surveyPick your strategy: how are you getting the information from the customer? Are you doing a workshop, a survey, a software release evaluation? There are many tools & techniques available:

  • VOC collection: surveys, interviews, complaints, …
  • VOC tools: affinity diagrams, Kano, Critical To Quality (CTQ), Quality Function Development (QFD), House Of Quality, …

An example (continued):

Why does your customer need the computer? The same for the family he represents: why do they need the computer? Further, what is important to him? A good service, quick delivery, repairs at home, …? You can get answers by asking him (survey).

If you want to know more about all the customers of your shop, you need to take more surveys and maybe even do some market research.

4. Interpret VOC

Collecting VOC is one thing, but what does it mean? Often the customer uses common statements or uses another vocabulary than you’re used to.

An example (continued):

What does a “fast” computer mean? What does a “good” service mean? What does “quick” delivery mean? Make sure you understand what the customer is asking for. Interpret his needs & wants.  Try to understand what he’s saying. Keep an eye (and ear) open for unexpressed needs and wants.

5. Translate VOC

Customers tend to want everything at the highest possible quality but at the lowest price. This is not possible without sacrificing your company, so you need to make choices. Before you can make choice, be sure that you’re aware of the priorities. For setting priorities tools like Kano analysis and Critical To Quality (CTQ) can be used.

With the Kano analysis must-haves, linear satisfiers and delighters can be identified.

An example (continued):

What is more important: the latest processor chip or a stable system? A new operating system or the old one at a discount price? How can you delight your customer?

How do i now i’m doing the right stuff? To measure is to know!

VOC metrics

Following metrics can be used for checking upon the effectiveness of your VOC actions:

  • Customer survey
  • Release evaluation
  • Sales numbers
  • Net Promoter Score
  • Number of complains received each month
  • Number of compliments received each month
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